Adult survivors of child sexual abuse bibliography

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Consultation paper: redress and civil litigation (PDF)
Australia. Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse
Sydney, NSW : Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, 2015.

This consultation paper invites public feedback on the issue of redress and civil litigation for the victims of institutional child sexual abuse in Australia. The paper provides background information and introduces the issues and some options regarding justice for victims, the elements of redress, possible structures for redress, re-engagement between survivor and institution, providing and funding counselling and psychological care, monetary payments, civil litigation, limitation periods for civil litigation, and the duty of institutions. Current schemes and services are also discussed.

National Redress Scheme participant and cost estimates (PDF)
Finity Consulting, Australia. Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse
Sydney, N.S.W. : Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, 2015.

A National Redress Scheme is being considered as part of the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, to manage compensation for the victims of institutional child sexual abuse in Australia. To help the Royal Commission with its work, this report was commissioned to estimate possible participant volumes, costs, and funding requirements associated with such a scheme. This includes estimates on the characteristics and counselling needs of claimants, and reviews of current state-based redress schemes.

Exploring pet loss for survivors of child sexual abuse : a hitherto unchartered terrain of trauma impact and recovery.
TaylorS and Breen L
Child Abuse Review v. 23 no. 5 Sep/Oct 2014: 353-360

There is research literature on the link between survivors of traumatic childhoods and their pets, with one study showing that pets provide unconditional love, security, and a sense of escape for child abuse survivors. Indeed, pets have been described as an integral part of the healing process for many. However, there is little research on the impact of pet death or loss on survivors - or the impact of perpetrators' threats against the pet. This article reviews the available evidence and discusses the implications for trauma recovery.

Report of case study no. 3: Anglican Diocese of Grafton's response to child sexual abuse at the North Coast Children's Home (PDF)
McClellan P
Sydney, NSW : Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, 2014.

As part of the Royal Commission's investigation of how institutions respond to child sexual abuse abuse, it will conduct case studies of selected incidents to more fully understand the institutional and systemic factors involved. This report examines the Anglican Diocese of Grafton's response to child sexual abuse at the North Coast Children's Home, It explores how the Diocese responded when former residents revealed their experience of child sexual abuse after 2005 - for crimes occurring between between 1940 and 1985 - and considers how the Church's structure, policies, and financial arrangements affected the way it managed the abuse claims. The report also examines how the Diocese dealt with the clergy who were accused.

What aspects of counselling facilitate healing from childhood sexual assault for men and women? A phenomenological investigation.
Vilenica S, Shakespeare-Finch J and Obst P
Psychotherapy in Australia v. 20 no. 4 Aug 2014: 12-22

There is no one best-practice treatment modality, supported by the evidence, for working with clients with a history of childhood sexual abuse. However, this article contributes to our understanding of what makes a difference when working with these clients. It presents findings from a study with 32 Australian adults on what were the important components in counselling that helped with their healing. Client specific factors and positive and negative counselling factors are discussed.

Interim report
McClellan P
Sydney, N.S.W. : Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, 2014.

This Royal Commission was appointed on 11 January 2013 to inquire into institutional responses to child sexual abuse in Australia. This report presents the interim findings of the Royal Commission. It describes the work that has been completed so far and key learnings to date, and asks for additional time and resources to complete the terms of reference and make more informed recommendations. These matters are discussed in volume 1 of the report; volume 2 shares the stories of people who experienced abuse in residential care, school, juvenile justice, community service, and religious settings.

Sexual revictimisation: individual, interpersonal and contextual factors
Stathopoulos M
Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2014.

Sexual revictimisation is a significant issue - people who have experienced child sexual abuse are two to three times more likely to experience subsequent abuse in adolescence or adulthood. This paper summarises what is known about the prevalence of revictimisation and its complex array of risk factors, focusing on vulnerable populations including people with a disability, Indigenous people, and gay and bisexual people. Much of the current research literature focuses on individual risk factors for the victim/survivor, rather than the broader contextual factors that may create vulnerability for certain groups.

Speaking through the silence: adult female survivors of intra-familial child sexual assault envisioning justice and resistance in Australian criminal justice systems
Hudson M

"This thesis explored the experiences of adult survivors of intra-familial child sexual assault and the experiences of victimisation, and perceptions of justice, that influence their decision making behaviour as adults. Utilising feminist epistemology and social constructivism, this research examined the lived experiences of adult survivors of intra-familial CSA, as well the views of expert stakeholders who work in a legal, advocacy or welfare capacity with survivors. Twenty two adult survivors completed questionnaires, and fifteen survivors participated in narrative interviews. Nine stakeholder groups also answered semi-structured interviews. Results from the research established the nexus between early experiences of long term intra-familial CSA and bystander denial within the family ... These findings highlighted the compatibility of survivors' justice needs with the development of specialist courts, with a few caveats. In order for specialist courts to address survivors' justice visions, a principle of non-adversarialism must be explored, with an incorporation of restorative justice values."--Author abstract.

Child sexual abuse : summary of adult survivors' therapeutic needs.
Quadara A, Higgins D, Nagy V, Lykhina A and Wall L
CFCA Connect 26 Aug 2013

Written for practitioners, this article briefly outlines what is known about: child sexual abuse, effective interventions, and the elements of a comprehensive service system. Links to further resources on these aspects are included.

Addressing the needs of women in prison with histories of sexual abuse.
Stathopoulos M
Penal Reform International Blog 4th Dec 2013

Women prisoners bring unique characteristics to custodial environments, with many having experienced child sexual abuse or adult sexual and physical victimisation. Unfortunately, prison environments can be devastating for people with a history of sexual victimisation, exacerbating trauma and engendering revictimisation. This blog post highlights this issue, and directs readers to a 2012 paper by the Australian Centre for the Study of Sexual Assault, "Addressing women's victimisation histories in custodial settings".

Civil litigation
Australia. Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse
Sydney, NSW : Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, 2013.

All states and territories provide a system of out of home care for children who are unable to live at home. As part of the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, this paper invites submissions from institutions and the general public on possible reforms to improve the effectiveness of the civil litigation systems, regarding resolving claims for damages for child sexual abuse in institutional contexts. Submissions should be made by 17 March 2014.

Adults as grown-up children - a perspective on children's rights.
Ross H
Australian Journal of Family Law v. 27 no. 3 Nov 2013: 235-261

This article examines the implications for children's civil law rights of the idea that adults are grown-up children. Individuals exist in a developmental continuum, conditioned by experiences they have undergone in childhood. It is maintained that when limitation laws bar adult claimants from pursuing claims in civil law in respect of wrongs committed against them when they were children, what are being forestalled are claims in respect of violated children's rights. In many jurisdictions, including Scotland, limitation laws do not properly address the special difficulties faced by adults as grown-up children and the disabilities, incapacities and vulnerabilities that beset adults as a consequence of abusive childhood experiences. Adult survivors of childhood abuse suffer from incapacities that often prevent them from pursuing civil law redress in time to avoid the guillotining effect of limitation laws. Ultimately, it is argued that in the context of adult survivors' claims in respect of childhood abuse such laws are an unjust impediment to the proper exercise and enforcement of rights that accrued in childhood.

Modelling the relationship between child abuse and long-term health care costs and wellbeing : results from an Australian community-based survey.
Reeve R and van Gool K
Economic Record v. 89 no. 286 Sep 2013: 300-318

This article looks at the long-term economic and welfare costs of childhood abuse. Using data from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, the article investigates the association between types of childhood abuse, number of health conditions, and health care spending. Health conditions include mental illness, physical illness, attempted suicide, and drug and alcohol abuse.

Childhood sexual abuse and adult developmental outcomes : findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand.
Fergusson D, McLeod G and Horwood L
Child Abuse and Neglect v. 37 no. 9 Sep 2013: 664-674

Childhood sexual abuse is associated with a range of adverse outcomes in adulthood. This article adds to the research evidence with a study of a wide range of outcomes over a protracted period of time. Using data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 30-year longitudinal study from New Zealand, it compares reported child sexual abuse and subsequent mental health, wellbeing, relationship quality, self esteem, sexual risk taking, unplanned pregnancies, physical health and use of health services, school completion, income, and welfare dependence to age 30.

No one noticed, no one heard: a study of disclosures of childhood abuse
Allnock D and Miller P
London : NSPCC, c2013.

"This report describes the childhood experiences of abuse of young men and women [in Great Britain] and how they disclosed this abuse and sought help. Researchers interviewed 60 young adults (aged 18-24 years) who had experienced high levels of different types of abuse and violence during childhood. The young adults were asked whether they had tried to tell anyone about what was happening to them, and what had happened as a result of their disclosures. Although much research suggests that few children disclose sexual abuse, in this study over 80% had tried to tell someone about the abuse."

Whispering to horses : childhood sexual abuse, depression and the efficacy of equine facilitated therapy.
Signal T, Taylor N, Botros H, Prentice K and Lazarus K
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand v. 5 no. 1 Jun 2013: 24-32

Animal Assisted Therapy has been found to be a useful addition in therapeutic treatment plans. In Queensland, one sexual assault referral centre is currently using horses - Equine Facilitated Therapy - in its child sexual abuse therapeutic program. This article evaluates the impact of this therapy on depressive symptoms among a group of child, adolescent, and adult survivors of child sexual abuse. Participants included 15 children (aged 8-11 years), 15 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) and 14 adults (aged 19-50 years) with 10 of the 44 participants identifying as Indigenous Australians.

Stories of strength: report on child sexual abuse & community recommendations for prevention (PDF)
Peace Over Violence (Organization), 1in6 Inc.
Los Angeles, Calif. : Peace Over Violence, 2013

This report presents recommendations for addressing child sexual abuse prevention in Los Angeles, United States. It draws upon research with traditionally excluded or marginalized groups, including deaf survivors, female gang-affiliated survivors, and male survivors.

The long-term effects of child sexual abuse
Cashmore J and Shackel R
Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2013.

This paper reviews recent Australian and international research on the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Information is presented on what is known about the impact on mental health, behaviour problems, suicide, risk taking, personal relationships, criminality, and physical health, as well as gender differences in outcomes and the methodological issues posed by this area of research. This paper aims to assist practitioners and policy-makers in understanding the significant findings from this large and sometimes complex body of research.

Bridges to adulthood: understanding the lifelong influence of men's childhood experiences of violence : analyzing data from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES)
Contreras J
Washington, DC : International Center for Research on Women ; Rio de Janeiro : Instituto Promundo, 2012.

This report explores the prevalence and nature of violence against boys in low- and middle-income countries, and its impacts into adulthood. Data is taken from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) for six countries: Brazil, Chile, Croatia, India, Mexico and Rwanda. Information is presented for: childhood exposure to violence, including domestic violence, child sexual abuse, and bullying; protective factors; and the influence of childhood violence on adult attitudes to gender and gender roles, adulthood criminal behaviour and paying for sex, relationship dynamics and parenting, men's health, and intimate partner violence. The implications for action are also discussed.

The role of ritual in the organised abuse of children.
Salter M
Child Abuse Review v. 21 no. 6 Nov/Dec 2012: 440-451

This article presents a theoretical model of ritual abuse, where ritual is used as a strategy that enjoins the participation of victims in organised abuse whilst simultaneously legitimising the abuse for the perpetrators. The theory is developed through the case studies with 16 adults in New South Wales who experienced organised ritual abuse in childhood.

Addressing women's victimisation histories in custodial settings
Stathopoulos M, Quadara A, Fileborn B and Clark H
Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2012.

This paper reviews the research literature on female prisoners who are also victim/survivors of sexual violence. It begins by exploring how sexual abuse in childhood or adulthood affects the experiences of female offenders in a prison setting, then discusses challenges in addressing these women's needs, as well as trauma-informed and gender-responsive approaches to care and practice.

Improving policy and practice responses for men sexually abused in childhood
Foster G, Boyd C and O'Leary P
Melbourne : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2012.

This paper explores how best to improve policy and practice for male victim/survivors of childhood sexual abuse. It reviews the prevalence and effects of male childhood sexual abuse, barriers to disclosure, and men's preferred methods of coping, before discussing service development strategies. The authors suggest that conceptualising and responding to male sexual victimisation as a public health issue will help to improve community responses to men and their families.

Child sexual abuse, masculinity and fatherhood.
Price-Robertson R
Journal of Family Studies v. 18 no. 2/3 Dec 2012: 130-142

This paper reviews the research on a largely hidden issue: the ways in which a history of child sexual abuse can influence men's perceptions and experience of fatherhood. Although no research that specifically investigated this topic was found, the current review identified a small number of qualitative studies involving male victim/survivors of child sexual abuse in which the area of fatherhood was covered. Key themes, such as male victim/survivors' fears that they may abuse their children or their tendency to be overprotective parents, are discussed with reference to relevant sociological, psychological and gender theory. Also discussed are the contemporary social and political contexts that shape the ways in which gender and sexual violence are understood and constructed, and which in turn contribute to this issue remaining excluded from public, academic and policy discourses. Finally, future research directions are outlined.

Time to talk about male survivors of sexual abuse.
Price-Robertson R
The Conversation 24 Sep 2012

This article highlights that we need to talk with and about male survivors of child sexual abuse, and we need to do it in ways that give men the space, support and encouragement to open up about their problems. The article stems from a research paper recently published by the author, 'Fathers with a history of child sexual abuse: new findings for policy and practice'.

Child sexual abuse and subsequent offending and victimisation: a 45 year follow-up study
Ogloff J, Cutajar M, Mann E and Mullen P
Canberra, ACT : Australian Institute of Criminology, 2012.

"Up to 30 percent of children experience childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and whether this impacts re-victimisation or offending as an adult has been the subject of numerous studies. This study investigates whether a disproportionate number of CSA victims subsequently perpetrate offences and experience future victimisation compared with people who have not been sexually abused. In a sample of 2,759 CSA victims who were abused between 1964 and 1995, it was found CSA victims were almost five times more likely than the general population to be charged with any offence than their non-abused counterparts, with strongest associations found for sexual and violent offences. CSA victims were also more likely to have been victims of crime, particularly crimes of a sexual or violent nature."--Foreword.

Fathers with a history of child sexual abuse: new findings for policy and practice
Price-Robertson R
Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2012.

There is little research available on how a history of child sexual abuse influences men's perceptions and experience of fatherhood. Based on a separately published review of the literature, this paper outlines the key themes that emerge in male victim/survivor studies on fatherhood. The paper also discusses why this topic is often overlooked by researchers and policy-makers, and calls for further research in this area.

Mothers with a history of childhood sexual abuse: key issues for child protection practice and policy
Tarczon C
Melbourne, Vic. : Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2012.

This paper reviews the impact of childhood sexual abuse on a woman's parenting capacity in adulthood. It summarises the research literature on the issues of mental health, intimate partner violence, substance abuse and homelessness on parenting and motherhood - highlighting how a mother's history of childhood sexual abuse often underpins many of the complex and overlapping issues that lead to compromised parenting capacities. In conclusion, the paper notes how a trauma-informed perspective can improve system responses to women and their children.

Child sexual abuse and later-life economic consequences: a comparative analysis of the role of parent-child shared time in selected countries (PDF)
Barrett A and Kamiya Y
Bonn, Germany : IZA, 2012.

"The impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on later-life health outcomes has been studied extensively and links with depression, anxiety and self-harm have been established. However, there has been relatively little research undertaken on the possible impact of CSA on later-life economic outcomes. Here, we explore whether older men who report having experienced CSA have weaker labour force attachment and lower incomes compared to other men. We use data from the first wave of the new Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) which is a nationally-representative survey of people aged 50 and over. We find that male victims of CSA are almost four times more likely to be out of the labour force due to sickness and disability. They also spent a higher proportion of their potential working lives out of the labour force for these reasons and have lower incomes. These effects remain even when we control for mental health difficulties and negative health behaviors. Among the policy implications are the need to be more aware of the complex effects of CSA when designing labour market activation strategies such as training for the unemployed. The results are also relevant in the legal context where compensation awards are determined."--Author abstract.

Organised sexual abuse
Salter M
Milton Park England : Routledge, 2012, c2013.

This book examines the sexual abuse of children by groups or networks. It reviews the debates and controversy surrounding organised abuse and examines case studies of 21 adults in Australia who experienced organised sexual abuse in childhood. Themes discussed include: the relationship between sexual abuse and organised abuse; debates on allegations and recovered memories; police responses; the contexts in which sexually abusive groups develop and operate; the role of religion and ritual in subcultures of organised sexual abuse; and the experience of adult and child victims in the criminal justice system and health system.

Child abuse and neglect in the UK today
Radford L
London : NSPCC, 2011

This report provides information on the prevalence, impact, and severity of child maltreatment in the United Kingdom. Based on a survey of 2,160 parents, 2,275 young people, and 1,761 young adults, it investigates the frequency of lifelong and current child abuse and neglect, the risk and protective factors associated with prevalence rates and impact, and trends in abuse since the previous NSPCC report, published in 2000. Information is also included on: household characteristics of participants, income and housing tenure, parent or child illness or disability, different types of abuse and polyvictimisation, gender differences, physical and emotional impacts, outcomes of delinquency or suicide, abuse by non-resident adults, which non-resident adults pose the greatest risk, co-occurrence of maltreatment and other victimisation types, sexual abuse by peers, and abuse at home, school or in the community. The report also discusses young people's views on helpful and unhelpful interventions.

See more resources on Adult survivors of child sexual abuse in the AIFS library catalogue

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